An Analysis of Population Growth and Fertility Rate in India
Keywords:Population Growth, Fertility, Population, Replacement Level.
If we compare to all other aspects of society, population growth is a very significant demographic characteristic. During the second half of the last century, rapid population growth was a serious concern as it was seen as an obstacle to the country's development. India is the second most populous countries after China in the world wit its total population of 139 crores in 2021. India's population is larger than the total population of North America, South America and Australia put together. However, India is going through the last phase of population transition expansion. That's mean total population of the country is increasing but at a declining rate. From 1901 to 2011, the decadal growth rate of India was 5.75% to 12.5%. As we also know that the human fertility rate plays an important role in determine the population growth of a country. According to UN World Population Policy, 2021, India is at replacement level TFR (2.1). In 2021, India with 139 crore people is the second most populous country in the world. According to New NFHS-5, India's total fertility rate (TFR) has declined from 2.2% to 2.0%. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the size and population growth rate of India since 1901 to 2021 and to analyze the trends of total fertility rate in India and its various states.